American & South Korean Flag Explained 

  • The 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies and the stars in the corner represent the states, one star for each state in the union.
  • The stars in the field of blue stand for the states of the union.
  • The colors of the flag represent:

Red: Hardiness and Valor
White: Purity and Innocence
Blue: Vigilance, Perserverance, and Justice

Four elements:
Top left: Heaven
Top right: Water
Bottom left: Fire
Bottom right: Earth

The Um-Yang stands for the opposites:man/women, hot/cold, left/right, up/down, good/evil ect… The blue is “um” and Red is “yang”.

Read more: Fun Facts for Kids About American Flags |

Parts of the hand

Arc Hand
Back Fist
Back Forearm
Base of Knifehand
Bear Hand
Double Finger
Finger Belly
Finger Pincers
Fore Knuckle
Fore Knuckle Fist
Fore Fist
Hammer Fist (Side Fist)
Knuckle Fist
Long Fist
Middle Knuckle Fist
Open Fist
Outer Forearm
Reverse Knifehand
Side Fist (Hammer Fist)
Straight Elbow
Thumb Knuckle Ridge
Thumb Ridge
Under Fist
Under Forearm

Parts of the foot

Ball of the foot

Foot sword
Back Sole
Back Heel
Side Instep
Reverse Footsword
Side Sole

Basic Stances 

This is an excellent and very accurate resource that describes all taekwondo stances.

TheTheory of Power (Him Ui Wolli)

Reaction Force: According to Newton’s Law, every force has an equal and opposite force. An example of this is punching with the right fist is aided by pulling back the left first to the hip.

Concentration: Concentration is done in two ways: one is to concentrate every muscle of the body, particularily the bigger muscles around the hip and abdomen towards the appropriate tool to be used at the proper time; the second way is to concentrate such mobilized muscles onto the opponent’s vital spot.

Equilibrium: To maintain good equilibrium, the center of gravity of the stance must fall on a straight line midway between both legs when the body weight is distributed equally on both legs. Flexibility and knee spring are also important in maintaining balance for both a quick attack and instant recovery.

Breath Control: Controlled breathing helps your stamina and speed but can also condition a body to receive a blow and augment the power of a blow directed against an opponent. Through practice, breath stopped in the state of exhaling at the critical moment when a blow is landed against a pressure point on the body can prevent a loss of consciousness and stifle pain. One breath is required for one movement with the exception of a continuous motion.

Mass: The maximum kinetic energy or force is obtained from maximum body weight and speed and it is all important that the body weight be increased diring the execution of a blow. Another way of increasing body weight is the utilization of a springing action of the knee joint. This is achieved by slightly raising the hip at the beginning of the motion and lowering the hip at the moment of impact to drop the body weight into the motion.

Speed: The most essential part o the theory of power. The fast the motion, the more dramatic the result will be.


There are six belts: white, yellow, green, blue, red and black. White is given to beginners and black is given to students who have progressed through the grades and have a solid foundation for learning the techniques of Taekwon-Do.


The definition of the belts are as follows : 

White Belt 
Signifies innocence, as that of the beginning student who has no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do.
Yellow Belt 
Signifies the earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the foundation of Taekwon-Do is being laid.
Green Belt 
Signifies the plant’s growth as Taekwon-Do skills begin to develop.
Blue Belt 
Signifies the Heaven towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses.
Red Belt 
Signifies Danger, cautioning the the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away.
Black Belt 
Opposite of white, therefore signifying the maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do, also indicates the wearer’s imperviousness to darkness and fear.



It can be said that courtesy is an unwritten regulation prescribed by ancient teachers of philosophy as a means to enlighten human beings while maintaining a harmonious society. It can be further be as an ultimate criterion required of a mortal.

Taekwon-Do students should attempt to practice the following elements of courtesy to build up their noble character and to conduct the training in an orderly manner as well.

1. To promote the spirit of mutual concessions
2. To be ashamed of one’s vices, contempting those of others
3. To be polite to one another
4. To encourage the sense of justice and humanity
5. To distinguish instructor from student, senior from junior, and elder from younger
6. To behave oneself according to etiquette
7. To respect others’ possessions
8. To handle matters with fairness and sincerity
9. To refrain from giving or accepting a gift when in doubt


In Taekwon-Do, the word integrity assumes a looser definition than the one usually presented in Webster’s dictionary. One must be able to define right and wrong and have a conscience, if wrong, to feel guilt. Listed are some examples where integrity is lacking:

1. The instructor who misrepresents himself and his art by presenting improper techniques to his students because of a lack of knowledge or apathy.
2. The student who misrepresents himself by “fixing” breaking materials before demonstrations.
3. The instructor who camouflages bad technique with luxurious training halls and false flattery to his students.
4. The student who requests ranks from an instructor, or attempts to purchase it.
5. The student who gains rank for ego purposes or the feeling of power.
6. The instructor who teaches and promotes his art for materialistic gains.
7. The students whose actions do not live up to his words.
8. The student who feels ashamed to seek opinions from his juniors.


There is an old Oriental saying, “Patience leads to virtue or merit, One can make a peaceful home by being patient for 100 times.” Certainly happiness and prosperity are most likely brought to the patient person. To achieve something, whether it is a higher degree or the perfection or a technique, one must set his goal, then constantly persevere. Robert Bruce learned his lesson of perseverance from the persistent efforts of a lowly spider. It was this perseverance and tenacity that finally enabled him to free Scotland in the fourteenth century. One of the most important secrets in becoming a leader of Taekwon-Do is to overcome every difficulty by perseverance. Confucius said, “one who is impatient in trivial matters can seldom achieve success in matters of great importance.”


This tenet is extremely important inside and outside the dojang, whether conducting oneself in free sparring or in one’s personal affairs. A loss of self-control in free sparring can prove disastrous to both student and opponent. An inability to live and work within one’s capability or sphere is also a lack of self-control.

According to Lao-Tzu “the term of stronger is the person who wins over oneself rather than someone else.”

INDOMITABLE SPIRIT (Baekjool Boolgool)

“Here lie 300, who did their duty,” a simple epitaph for one of the greatest acts of courage known to mankind. Although facing the superior forces of Xerxes, Leonidas and his 300 Spartans at Thermoplylae showed the world the meaning of indomitable spirit. It is shown when a courageous person and his principles are pitted against overwhelming odds.

A serious student of Taekwon-Do will at all times be modest and honest. If confronted with injustice, he will deal with the belligerent without any fear or hesitation at all, with indomitable spirit, regardless of whosoever and however many the number may be.

Confucius declared,” It is an act of cowardice to fail to speak out against injustice.” As history has proven, those who have pursued their dreams earnestly and strenuously with indomitable spirit have never failed to achieve their goals.

Basic School Language

Master: Sah-Buh-Nim
Taekwondo School: Do-Jang
Attention: Cha-Ryot
Bow: Kyung Rye
Thank you: Kam Sabida
Parallel Ready Stance: Jhoon-Be
Begin: Shi-Jak
Stop: Goh-Man
Pattern: Tul
At Ease: Shi-Ot


Bow to the Master: Sah-Bu-Nim Ke Daehahn Kyung Rye
Bow to the Instructor (Senior Belt): Kyo Sah Nim Kyung Rye
Bow to the Grand Master: Kwan Jang Nim Ke Daehahn Kyung Rye
Bow to the Flags: Kuk Kie Daehahn Kyung Rye


One       Ha-Na
Two       Dul
Three    Set
Four      Net
Five      Da-Sut
Six       Yo-Sut
Seven   Il-Gup
Eight     Yo-Dul
Nine      Ah-Hop
Ten       Yeol

Reproduced from “Taekwon-Do” (The Korean Art of Self Defense) also known as The Condensed Encyclopedia. 
Fifth Edition 1999, All rights reserved
Copyright 1988, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999 General Choi, Hong Hi.